【雙語】他們不期望生活改變,但渴望被世界各地的你聽見──Humans of Syria,圍城裡的革命(下)

【雙語】他們不期望生活改變,但渴望被世界各地的你聽見──Humans of Syria,圍城裡的革命(下)

前文:【雙語】橫跨三國三語的 70 位志願者,為失聲的敘利亞人譜寫臉孔──Humans of Syria,圍城裡的革命(上)

問:HOS 成立至今已超過 3 年半,妳對未來有什麼規劃?是否考慮拍攝更多影片或出版書籍,讓更多讀者知道這些故事?

答:我們正在架設網站,現在已經進入最後階段了。

去年是艱苦的一年,而今年,上千名敘利亞人被迫遷離家園,從敘利亞大馬士革南方搬遷到北方;之前,這樣的事情也發生在德拉雅、阿勒坡跟其他敘利亞城市中。因此大部分的攝影師現在都在北方和伊德利卜,甚至進入土耳其。我們等待他們安頓下來之後,再進一步討論未來的規劃;他們的安全是我們的第一優先考量。

另外,我們也準備了一部大馬士革南方的影片,我們也有意要繼續製作影片。即使拍攝影片比靜態的照片難上許多,因為影片需要更多的剪輯與志願者的努力。但我們確實在考慮這件事。

至於出書規劃,我們曾經考慮過,但現在尚待有心人士的支持以完成這項計畫。

問:你們有收過 HOS 讀者的回饋嗎?

答:有喔,好幾次。我們曾收到不少有心幫助計畫的人的回饋,其中有些人現在也成為我們的「家人」了。對了,我們會稱自己是「HOS 家庭」,比起單純的計畫,我們更像一個家庭。他們也幫助我們進行翻譯、聯繫、展覽、策展等等的工作。

我們也收到很多來自其他人的回饋,他們驚訝於那些他們閱讀到的報導,沒想到這樣的故事可以在圍城裡面發生,而圍城裡的這些人居然在做這些厲害的事。

問:HOS 首次與中文媒體合作的對象便是《換日線》,對於中文讀者而言,妳有沒有什麼關於「可以為敘利亞人做什麼」的建議可以跟他們分享?

答:我會他們建議多多接觸敘利亞人,因為那些呈現在媒體上的與真實情況截然不同。我也建議他們多閱讀、多接觸關於敘利亞的一切。如果遇到了敘利亞人,也不要認為他們就是媒體塑造出來的那種刻板形象,等一等,聽聽看他們說了什麼,再去認識這個人。

問:HOS 目前與多少位攝影師合作?他們都是敘利亞人嗎?

答:我們的組織裏面有大約 70 位志願者,分別擔任攝影師、翻譯、設計師與專案統籌。我不太能算清楚攝影師究竟有多少人,但可以說超過 40 位。就像我前面提到的,很多攝影師被迫離開他的原居地,所以我不太確定他們現在是否還在參與這個計劃。我在等他們安置下來,但他們必須不斷移動。他們被強制遷離,所以目前沒有未來的規劃,一切都很混亂。所以他們現在要先想好自己的未來,以及棲身在何方。

所有的攝影師都是敘利亞人,但他們被迫離開家鄉。之前有一位美國攝影師在拜訪難民營後,曾經參與過我們的計畫,其他都是敘利亞攝影師。至於志願者,他們來自黎巴嫩、美國、法國人、伊朗等等,所以志願者可說是世界公民的集合體,我們是就像同一個家庭裡的成員。

最初,我們與 12 名國際攝影師共同創辦這個計畫,當時他們也在圍城裡面。後來,每個人呼朋引伴,並在計畫漸漸曝光在媒體後,愈來愈多人開始加入我們的志願團隊。所以我們有了審核團隊,確認每位申請者的能力與技術,他們在被認可並確定價值一致之後就能加入我們的大家庭。

攝影師們被迫離開他們的家鄉。圖/ChameleonsEye@ShutterStock

問:HOS 攝影師在拍攝時曾經遇過什麼樣的危險嗎?他們又是怎麼處理這些危險?

答:是的,不幸的是,他們面臨很多危險。很多人住在圍城之中,那裏沒有水、沒有電、無法連接外面的世界;他們在空襲炸彈、化學武器、砲擊轟炸、船堅炮利之下求生存。所以他們每天都身在危險之中的。

北邊的情況也是一樣的,他們甚至要擔負被逮捕的風險。事實上,我們的一個家庭成員,他是一名住在雅爾矛克難民營的巴勒斯坦攝影師,即使有一條政府協定是說他們會被保護,但他 3 年前即被逮捕,那時我們才剛剛開始這個計畫 5 個月。更不幸的是,幾個月前,我們接到他在那裏被凌虐致死的噩耗。

我想這是因為他是一位偉大的攝影師:他傳遞真相、他贏得多項大獎、他很知名、他是少數說出雅爾矛克難民營真相的人,並且,他參與過一部電影的演出與多次展覽,所以我覺得那些人想要滅他的口。

至於攝影師如何處理這些危險,這視地區、城市以及他們的處境而論。像是:他們在空襲炸彈之下,所以必須住在地下室好幾天直到空襲結束。有些攝影師因為空襲而失去了親生父親、家庭成員,甚至失去住的地方,而他們的孩子暴露在這樣極端暴力的環境中。所以他們幾乎天天受苦,他們必須面對這些事。其實不只攝影師,這更像是敘利亞人的處境。

問:這些攝影師是怎麼找到拍攝題材的呢?受訪者都是熟人嗎?若不是,他們又要怎麼跟受訪者建立信任?

答:當他們開始拍攝,我們會準備短、中、長三種類型的報導。短的報導就是一些簡單的聊天內容,而攝影師必須從中找到特別的、新的亮點,讓我們的故事不會重複太多。我們也告訴攝影師,要避免空襲報導,因為我們想要的是更多關於人們如何生活、怎麼克服這些困難與危險。

在長篇報導中,我們通常會希望攝影師坐下來與被攝者好好聊聊,告訴我們他們的故事,以即他們為什麼會加入這場革命、他們的生活難關與困境。

另外,我們也嘗試在每個報導中加入人物肖像攝影,透過看著鏡頭的方式,人們會知道他正在被拍攝,因與讀者有更多直接的接觸。

問:受訪者的故事曝光之後,他們的生活有什麼改變嗎?

答:目前為止,我們已經發布超過 300 件故事,有時我們也會跟進這些報導。我不期望他們的生活因此而改變。就我所知,當我們發布這些故事時,這些受訪者總是很高興自己的聲音能被聽見,而且有人對「訴說一個普通人的故事」感興趣。

我們試著要傳遞這些故事到世界各地;這是非議題性的,亦沒有收到任何金錢援助。所以受訪者與我們合作時總是很開心,也很樂意分享自己的故事。

 
"Humans Of Syria"是什麼?影片/Humans Of Syria 臉書專頁

Q: HOS has established over 3.5 years. What is your future plan? Have you ever considered making more videos or publishing books to reach more readers?

A: For now we're finalizing our website, it’s in the last stages.

Last year was really hard. In 2018, with thousands of Syrians were forcibly displaced from many areas like Eastern Ghouta, Yarmouk Camp, southern Damascus. They were all displaced to the north. And previously it also happened to Daraya, Aleppo and other cities. So most of the photographers are now in the north of Syria and in Idlib and many also entered Turkey. What we're waiting for is for them to settle down so we can have more discussions about the future plans; their safety is NO.1 priority for us right now.

Also, we prepared one video from southern Damascus, and we have a plan to continue working with videos. Although making videos is much harder than shooting photos because they need more editing and more volunteers’ efforts. We consider that for sure. 

For publishing books, we’ve considered that, but right now we're looking for someone to support this book project.

Q: Have you ever received any feedback from HOS readers?

A: Yes, actually several times. We’ve received a lot of feedback from people who want to help and some people are part of our family right now. We call it “HOS family”,  not just a project; more as a family. And they help us a lot with the translations, connections, exhibitions and organizing events.

We also received a lot of messages from people who were surprised about the stories that they were reading and they didn't even expect that such things were available under siege or that these people were doing these great stuff there.

Q: It is the first time for HOS to cooperate with Chinese media. Do you have any suggestions for Chinese-speaking readers about how they can do for Syrian people?

A: I would suggest to connect more with Syrians, because what's presented on the media is different from the reality. Also, I would suggest to read more and to connect directly with more Syrians.

If they’ve ever met a Syrian, it's better not to talk to them as they are presented stereotypes on the media. Wait and listen and know the person before they treat them as their stereotype.

Q: How many photographers do you collaborate with now? Are they all Syrians? 

A: There are around 70 members between photographers, translators, designers and coordinators. I can't count the exact numbers of photographers right now, but it's more than 40. As I said, many of them left the places, so I'm not sure if they are still active right now. I'm waiting for them to settle and they're moving a lot. They were forcibly displaced, so they don't have their future plan; it’s all messy. So they need to figure out what to do in their life and where they're going to stay. 

All photographers are Syrian, but they were forced to leave this country. And one photographer who participated at the beginning of the project was an American journalist who visited the camps but all the others are Syrian photographers. For the volunteers, some of them are Lebanese, some of them are US citizen, some of them are from France,some of them are Iranians. So there is a collection of volunteers from all over the world, like we're friends of the family.

At the beginning, we started the project with a group of 12 co-founders that they were international photographers under siege in eastern Ghouta. Then we started towards everyone connected their friends. When the project was more known in the media, people started to ask to volunteer so we have editors group. They’ll check their ability and skills. If they are okay and share the same values, they can join the group of family.

Q: Have the photographers behind HOS encountered any danger? How did they deal with it?

A: Yes, unfortunately, they are under a lot of danger. Many of them were living under siege. There is no water, no electricity, no connections to the outside world.  They were under bomb with airstrike and chemical weapons, bombardment and vessels. So they were under daily dangers. 

And also in the north, it's the same and also they were under the danger of being arrested. Actually, one member of the family, he was a Palestinian photographer and  living in Yarmouk Camp, and there was an agreement with the government that they would be protected. But he got arrested 3 years ago when we started 5 months after we started the project. Unfortunately, few months ago, we receive the news that he was there, died after the torture.

I think it's because he is a great photographer, and he was telling the truth, and he won several awards, and he was well known. I think he was one of the few voices who was telling the truth from Yarmouk Camp. He also participated in a movie and several exhibits, so I think they wanted to shut his voice.

How did they deal with the danger? It depends on the area, depends on the city and their situations. They're under bombs, so they have to live in basements for days, sometimes until the bombardment is finished. Some of the photographers lost their father in a bombardment and some lost their family members; also, many lost their houses, and their kids were under extreme violence and dramas. So there is a lot that they were suffering from on a daily basis. Day by day, they have to face these things. It’s not just about these photographers, it's more about people in Syrian.

Q: How do the photographers find topics to shoot? Are the interviewees all their acquaintances? If not, how do they build trust with them? 

A: Well, when they started, we prepared 3 groups of stories or types of stories: short, middle and long. When they do the short story sometimes, it's just about a small chat with the people and then they need to find something special and new that we always wanted to share, so we don't repeat ourselves.

And we’ve told them to avoid the stories about the bombardment, because we wanted more stories about what people are living and how they're overcoming the struggles and the dangers. In the long stories, we usually sit and have a long interview with a person to tell us the story about how they join the revolution, what they live through and what they're struggling with.

Also, we try with most of the stories to have more portraits with people looking to the camera, so the person will know he is being photographed and to have more direct contact with the audience.

Q: Has any interviewee’s life changed after the exposing of their stories?

A: We’ve published like more than 300 stories. Sometimes we followed up with these stories. I don't want to expect that their life changed. What I know is that, when I talked to someone or if I met in person with someone when we publish their stories, they were always happy that they had a voice and that someone was interested to tell a normal person's story.

We were trying to deliver their stories to the world without having any agenda or without being supported for money. So they were always open and willing to share their stories and happy to collaborate.

執行編輯:莊承憲
核稿編輯:林欣蘋

Photo Credit:Humans Of Syria 臉書專頁

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